Cause of death data in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Based on the ANACONDA 2017 Results)
38.8 percent of deaths in ARMM caused by non-communicable diseases
Deaths are distributed by three Global Burden of Disease (GBD) broad groups: Group 1 (Communicable diseases), Group 2 (Non-communicable diseases) and Group 3 (External causes). The results of 2017 Recorded Deaths from Vital Statistics Report showed that in ARMM, 38.8 percent of deaths in ARMM were caused by noncommunicable diseases (see Figure 1). As the region develop their health systems, communicable diseases will increasingly be brought under control and the fraction of deaths due to non-communicable conditions will increase.
Also, the mortality ratio of Group 2 to Group 1 in ARMM (3.5) differs significantly from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates for GBD region reference value (2.6) (see Table 1). Thus, it follows that the quality cause of death (COD) diagnosis in the input data was poor due to under-reported deaths of Group 2 relative to Group 1.
Table 1. Ratio of Group 2 to Group 1: IHME estimated GBD for region and ARMM
42.1 percent of the remaining deaths in ARMM were unusable and insufficiently specified causes of death
In ARMM, 42.1 percent of the remaining deaths were unusable and insufficiently specified causes of death. 24.7 percent of it were unusable causes and the remaining 17.4 percent were insufficiently specified causes. Thus, it follows that the quality of input cause of death data in the region is poor and the utility for public policy is low.
Ischemic heart disease caused 16.2 percent of male deaths in ARMM
Out of the top 10 leading causes of male deaths in ARMM based on GBD list of COD, ischemic heart disease tallied as the most leading cause which were 16.2 percent of the male deaths in the region, followed by stroke and lower respiratory infections which were 10.6 percent and 9.3 percent of the regions’ male deaths, respectively.
Table 2. Top 10 Leading Causes of Male Deaths, ARMM: 2017
15.2 percent of female deaths in ARMM caused by ischemic heart disease
Same to the regions’ male deaths, ischemic heart disease also tallied as the most leading cause which were 15.2 percent of the female deaths in the region, followed again by stroke and lower respiratory functions which were 11.5 percent and 11.4 percent of the regions’ female deaths, respectively.
Table 3. Top 10 Leading Causes of Female Deaths, ARMM: 2017
Completeness of death reporting was the main priority action area to improve data quality in ARMM
Among all regions in Philippines, ARMM has the lowest Vital Statistics Performance Index Quality (VSPI (Q)) summary score which recorded 13.6 percent and was the only region to record “very low” in terms of VSPI (Q) classification (see Table 4). It clearly shows that the region has a poor functioning mortality data system.
Of all the five components in getting the VSPI (Q) of the region, completeness of death reporting has the lowest weighted score (18.2 percent). Thus, ARMM needed to strive effort in this priority action area (76 percent) to improve the mortality data quality of the region (see Figure 3).
Table 4. Vital Statistics Performance Index Quality (VSPI (Q)) Components Score, ARMM: 2017
Communicable diseases are a classification of disease that can easily spread from one person to another through a variety of ways that include: contact with blood and bodily fluids; breathing in an airborne virus; or by being bitten by an insect.
Non-communicable diseases are a classification of disease that is not caused by infectious agents. It is a non-infectious or non-transmissible type of disease
External causes most commonly are injuries due to accidents, homicide and suicide.
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) is a research institute working in the area of global health statistics and impact evaluation at the University of Washington in Seattle. Its goal is "to identify the best strategies to build a healthier world. By measuring health, tracking program performance, finding ways to maximize health system impact, and developing innovative measurement systems, IHME provides a foundation for informed decision-making that ultimately will lead to better health globally" IHME (2011).
Underlying cause of death (UCOD) is the disease or injury that initiated the train of events leading directly to death, or the circumstances of the accident or violence which produced the fatal injury.
Insufficiently specified causes are causes of death which can be acceptable as an UCOD but needed more information
International Statistical Classification for Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) is the global standard for collecting cause of death data. It is issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1948, currently in its 10th revision. The ICD classification is divided into 21 Chapters, subdivided into homogenous blocks that consist of 3-character disease categories. ICD is used to translate diagnoses into alphanumeric codes which can be used for statistics. It is originally used to classify COD – later expanded to cover morbidity and contacts with health services, which today forms the vast majority of codes.
Global Burden of Diseases is a large, global collaborative study to estimate mortality and causes of death in 190 countries which is derived from ICD. GBD classifies ICD causes of death into approximately 300 specific disease and injury categories considered to be of global public health importance
Vital Statistics Performance Index Quality (VSPI (Q)) is a single summary index of overall CRVS system performance. It is the composite of five dimensions of VS strength, each assessed by a separate empirical indicator. The six dimensions include: quality of age and sex reporting, quality of cause of death reporting, biologically plausible COD, level of cause-specific detail available and completeness of death reporting.