Death Rates in Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (Based on ANACONDA 2017 Results)
In 2015, Bloomberg Philanthropies, in partnership with the Australian government, launched a $100 Million Data for Health Initiative to help improve public health and save lives by strengthening the Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) systems. Under this initiative, a number of tools have been built as comparator data lifted from various studies of different international organizations which serve as benchmark in making the analysis such as: Global Burden of Diseases (GBD), Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME), Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and World Health Organization (WHO), in order to improve the quality of mortality data and causes of death data1. Analysis of Causes of National Death for Action (ANACONDA) is one of those.
ANACONDA is a tool for checking the quality of mortality data. It provides a stepby-step approach to enable users to quickly conduct a comprehensive review of data on mortality levels and causes of death. In particular, ANACONDA will help identify probable errors, misdiagnoses and inconsistencies in the mortality and causes of death data2. It is a tool jointly developed by the University of Melbourne and the Swiss Public Health Institute at the University of Basel.
Females outnumbered males by 12,263 in ARMM.
Figure 1 shows the distribution of the population of Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), based on the 2017 Projected Population from 2015 Census of Population (POPCEN 2015). The results showed that in ARMM, females outnumbered males by 12,263. That is, for every 100 females, there are 99 males in the region. Age group 5 to 9 years old has the most number of population in both male and female, which is 14.2 percent of the total population in ARMM, followed by age groups 0 to 4 years old and 10 to 14 years old. Males outnumbered females from the age groups mentioned. Thus, it follows that there are more male than female among the young population in the region. Generally, the graph shows that the region has an expansive type of population pyramid. The broad base could somehow suggest that fertility level is high.
59.1 percent of deaths in ARMM are from the male population
The results of 2017 Recorded Deaths from Vital Statistics Report showed that 59.1 percent of deaths in ARMM are involving males. That is, for every 100 dead females, there are 144 dead males in the region. Age group 60 to 64 years old has the most number of male deaths which is 5.8 percent of the total deaths in ARMM, while age group 0 to 4 years old has the highest number of female deaths, which is 4 percent of the total deaths in the region. Also, age group 0 to 4 years old has the most number of deaths in both sexes, which is 9.0 percent of the total deaths. This is followed by age groups 65 to 69 years old and 60 to 64 years old (9.6 percent and 9.4 percent), respectively.
In general, the age-sex distribution pyramid showed fewer deaths at younger ages except in 0-4 age group because of the high risk of dying among infants and young children. The number of deaths progressively increases with age. There were more deaths among males than in females from ages 5-79 years old and the reverse being true at older ages.
ARMM has a crude death rate (CDR) of 0.9 in male and 0.6 in female
ARMM has the lowest crude death rate (CDR) per 1000 among all regions in the Philippines at 0.9 and 0.6, in both men and women, respectively. Among the provinces in ARMM, Basilan has the highest CDR in both sexes, while Tawi-Tawi has the lowest CDR. Comparing the CDRs of both males and females with the comparator data provided by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME, 2017), the results for both women and men were below the threshold level of 5 persons per 1,000 population, which is indicative of under registration of deaths. Thus, it follows that there could be many deaths in ARMM that were not registered.
Females in ARMM has a higher death rate than males at age group 80 years and over
The trend of the region’s age-specific death rate (ASDR) increased after 10 to 14 years among both male and female population. There is also a straight line in male age groups from 5 to 9 years and 10 to 14 years. Thus, it follows that there are underreported or misreported deaths in the said age groups. Male death rates are obviously higher than the female among all age groups, except in 80 years above. Therefore, females have a greater life expectancy than male in the region.
Total Population is the sum of the household population and institutional population. It also includes Filipinos in Philippine embassies, consulates, and missions abroad.
Crude Death Rate (CDR) is a very simple and easily understood measure of overall population health status. It is also the most straightforward way to assess likely death registration completeness. To get this, multiply the quotient of the total number of resident deaths and total population to 1,000. When the CDR is below 5, thus it follows that are many deaths that are not registered.
Age-specific death rate (ASDR) is a more precise measure of actual mortality risk. This observation is used to compare ASDR by calculating and comparing the natural logarithm of it, which should rise linearly with age after age 30 or so. To get this, multiply the quotient of the number of resident deaths in a specific age group and the total population in the same age group to 1,000.