2018 Gender Statistics in ARMM: Labor and Employment

June 25, 2019Special Release Ref No.: SR-ARMM-19-026

About 96.25 percent of ARMM labor force is employed

Half or 50.31 percent of the working-age population or population 15 years old and over are female, while the remaining 49.69 percent are male. In 2018, 46.55 percent of this population are in the labor force or economically active population. This refers to persons 15 years old and over who are either employed or unemployed. Moreover, there are more male than female in the labor force with corresponding percent distribution of 73.39 percent and 26.61 percent.

In the labor force, 96.25 percent are employed, while the remaining 3.75 percent are unemployed. Employed persons include those who are at work or with a job but not at work during the reference period. Unemployed persons include those who are without work, currently available for work and seeking work during the reference period. Female labor force comprised 26.06 percent of employed persons and 40.45 percent of unemployed persons; while male labor force are 73.94 percent of employed persons and 59.55 percent of unemployed persons. 

On the other hand, more than half or the remaining 53.45 percent of population 15 years old and over in ARMM are not in the labor force or those who are neither employed nor unemployed. Those who are not in the labor force are persons who are not looking for work because of reasons such as housekeeping, schooling and permanent disability. Examples are housewives, students, disabled, or retired persons.

Figure 1. Percent Distribution of Population 15 Years Old and Over in ARMM, by Employment Status and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

 

Table 1. Percent Distribution of Population 15 Years Old and Over in ARMM, by Employment Status and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

3 in every 10 employed persons in ARMM are elementary undergraduate only

In 2018, 31.02 percent of the employed persons in ARMM reached Elementary Undergraduate as their highest grade completed. Majority or 80.42 percent of which are male, while the remaining 19.58 percent are female. This is followed by Elementary Graduate and Junior High School Graduate with corresponding percent distributions of 15.50 percent and 15.16 percent. There are also more male than female in these groups. Moreover, 12.37 percent of the employed persons in the region have No Grade Completed. This is composed of 72.41 percent of male and 27.59 percent of female. 

About 5.22 percent of the employed persons in the region are College Graduate. More than half of which or 57.85 percent are female, while the remaining 42.15 percent are male. This is the only Highest Grade Completed that is predominantly female.

Figure 2. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in by Highest Grade Completed: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

 

Figure 3. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in ARMM, by Highest Grade Completed and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

 

Table 2. Percent Distribution of Population 15 Years Old and Over in ARMM, by Employment Status and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

Almost half of the employed persons in ARMM are Skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers

Almost half or 46.77 percent of the employed persons in ARMM in 2018 are Skilled Agricultural, Forestry, and Fishery Workers. About 57.29 percent of the total male employed persons belong to this major occupation group. There are also 15.03 percent and 10.06 percent of the employed male with Elementary Occupations and Managers, respectively.

Majority of the employed female in the region are Managers and with Elementary Occupations with corresponding percent distribution of 28.77 percent and 26.63 percent. About 16.92 percent are Skilled Agricultural, Forestry, and Fishery Workers; while 13.39 percent are Service and Sales Workers.

Figure 4. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in ARMM, by Major Occupation Group and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

 

Table 3. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in ARMM, by Major Occupation Group and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

6 in every 10 employed persons in ARMM are in Agriculture

About 60.40 percent of the total employed persons in ARMM in 2018 are in Agriculture, while the remaining 33.46 percent and 6.14 percent are in Services and Industry, respectively. Majority or 68.56 percent of the employed male are also in Agriculture, while more than half or 58.99 percent of the employed female are in Services.

In Agriculture, both employed male and female are concentrated in Agriculture, hunting, forestry comprising 49.30 percent and 34.39 percent of their respective sex groups. Fishing recorded 19.26 percent and 2.87 percent of the employed male and female, correspondingly.

Wholesale and Retail Trade; Repair of Motor Vehicles and Motorcycles is the most common sub-industry group in Services sector. About 15.51 percent of the employed persons in ARMM in 2018 belong to this group. Majority of female in the region are employed in this group, comprising 37.27 percent of the employed female. Moreover, 7.84 percent of the employed male also belong to this group. 

The percent distribution of employed persons in Industry is relatively lower than those of other sectors. Construction and Manufacturing recorded the highest participation rates of 3.37 percent and 2.44 percent, respectively, in this sector. Employed male in Industry are concentrated in Construction with 4.56 percent participation rate, while employed women are observed mostly in Manufacturing with a rate of 3.70 percent.

Figure 5. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in ARMM, by Major Industry Group and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

 

Table 4. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in ARMM, by Major Industry Group and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

6 in every 10 workers in ARMM are Self-Employed Without Any Paid Employee

In 2018, 61.83 percent of the total number of employed persons in ARMM are Self-Employed Without Any Paid Employee. About 67.03 percent of employed male and 47.09 percent of employed female are classified under this class of worker. These are persons who operate their own business or trades and do not employ paid workers in the conduct of their economic activities.

Moreover, 24.11 percent of the employed persons are classified as Wage and Salary Workers. There are 23.18 percent and 26.75 percent of the employed male and female who belong to this classification. Wage and Salary Workers are further classified into four categories. Those who Worked for Private Household comprise 0.87 percent of the employed persons in the region, 0.12 percent of the employed male and 3.00 percent of the employed female. These are employed persons working for pay in a private household, in cash or in kind. The second classification are the employed persons who Worked for Private Establishment. Approximately 15.82 percent of the employed persons in the region belong to this group; 17.92 percent of employed male and 9.89 percent of employed female. These are the persons working for pay in a private establishment, in cash or in kind. Moreover, 7.32 percent of the employed persons in the region, that is 5.03 percent of employed male and 13.80 percent of employed female, are those who Worked for Government or Government-Controlled Corporation. These are persons working for the Philippine government or a government corporation or any of its instrumentalities. Lastly, those who Worked with Pay in Own Family-Operated Farm or Business consist 0.10 percent of the total employed persons in ARMM. This includes 0.11 percent of employed male and 0.06 percent of employed female. These are members of the household who receive cash, or fixed share of the produce, as payment for their services in a farm or business operated by another member living in the same household. 

One in every 10 or 10.96 percent of the employed persons in ARMM Worked Without Pay in Own Family-Operated Farm or Business. This includes 6.52 percent of the employed male and 23.56 percent of the employed female. These are members of the household who assist in the operation of own family-operated farm or business, and do not receive any wage or salary for their work.

Moreover, the remaining 3.09 percent of the employed persons in ARMM are classified as Employer on Own Family-Operated Farm or Business. This includes the 3.26 percent of employed male and 2.61 percent of employed female in the region. These are persons who employ one or more paid employees in the operation of their businesses or trades.

Figure 6. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in ARMM, by Class of Worker and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

 

Figure 7. Percent Distribution of Wage and Salary Workers in ARMM, by Class of Worker and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

 

Table 5. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in ARMM, by Class of Worker and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

An employed person in ARMM works 39.5 hours a week

An employed person in ARMM engages 39.5 hours in all the jobs or businesses in a week. Male employees have relatively higher average hours worked than their female counterpart. Male employees work at average of 39.9 hours, while female employees work at an average of 38.3 hours.

More than half or 58.36 percent of the employed persons in ARMM worked or more than 40 hours during the reference week. This is composed of 75.8 percent male and 24.2 percent female. On the other hand, 7.96 percent worked for less than 20 hours, of which 51.2 percent are male and 48.8 percent are female.

There are 0.06 percent of the total employed persons in ARMM who did not work during the reference week. Majority or 82.3 percent of which are female, while the remaining 17.7 percent are male. 

Figure 8. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in ARMM, by Total Hours Worked and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

 

Table 6. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons in ARMM, by Total Hours Worked and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

8 in every 10 employed persons in ARMM who want more hours of work are male

Most or 82.90 percent of the employed persons in ARMM who want more hours of work are male, while the remaining 17.10 percent are female. More than half or 54.84 percent of the employed persons who want more hours of work have worked for less than 40 hours during the reference period, of which 80.56 percent are male and 19.44 percent are female. Moreover, 45.16 percent of these employed persons have worked 40 hours and over. This is comprised of 85.73 percent of male and 14.27 percent of female.

Figure 9. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons Wanting More Hours of Work, by Total Hours Worked and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

 

Table 7. Percent Distribution of Employed Persons Wanting More Hours of Work, by Total Hours Worked and by Sex: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

Most of the unemployed persons in ARMM search for job through registration in a public employment agency

Most of the unemployed persons in ARMM in 2018 search for job through registration in a public employment agency. This comprised 2.27 percent of the total unemployed persons in the Philippines looking for work. This is followed by those who approached relatives or friends, placed or answered advertisements, approached employer directly and registered in private employment agency.

Figure 10. Percent Distribution of Unemployed Persons in ARMM Looking for Work, by Job Search Method: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

An unemployed person in ARMM spends 5.6 weeks looking for work

An unemployed person in ARMM spends an average of 5.6 weeks looking for work. The region ranked 4th out of 17 regions in the country in terms of number of weeks that an unemployed person spends to search for job.

Most of the job seekers in ARMM spends 10 to 19 weeks to look for work. This comprised 1.56 percent of the total job seekers in the country. This is followed by those who are looking for work for 20 weeks and over, four to nine weeks, and less than four weeks.

Figure 11. Percent Distribution of Unemployed Persons in ARMM Looking for Work, by Number of Weeks Looking for Work: 2018
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

Technical Notes: Concepts, Definitions and Explanations

This section presents the important concepts used in the LFS. Concepts and definitions mentioned in previous Integrated Survey of Households (ISH) series are, in most cases, the same as the ones presented here.

Barangay

A barangay is the smallest political subdivision in the country, several of which comprise one city or municipality.  For purposes of enumeration in the LFS, a barangay is considered the basic geographic enumeration area.

Household

A household is an aggregate of persons, generally but not necessarily bound by ties of kinship, who sleep in the same dwelling unit and have common arrangements for the preparation and consumption of food.  Members comprise the head of the household, relatives living with him, and other persons who share the community life for reasons of work or other consideration.  A person who lives alone is considered a separate household.

Reference Period

The reference period for this survey is the “past week” referring to the past seven (7) days preceding the date of visit of the enumerator or interviewer.

Employment Status Concepts

Population 15 Years Old and Over

This refers to number of population 15 years old and over excluding overseas workers.  Overseas workers are excluded in the estimation of the size of working population (population aged 15 years and over) since the data on their economic characteristics are not collected because they are not considered part of the labor force in the country.

In the Labor Force or Economically Active Population

This refers to persons 15 years old and over who are either employed or unemployed in accordance with the definitions described as follows.

Employed

Employed persons include all those who, during the reference period are 15 years old and over as of their last birthday and are reported either:

a. At work. Those who do any work even for one hour during the reference period for pay or profit, or work without pay on the farm or business enterprise operated by a member of the same household related by blood, marriage or adoption; or

b. With a job but not at work. Those who have a job or business but are not at work because of temporary illness or injury, vacation or other reasons. Likewise, persons who expect to report for work or to start operation of a farm or business enterprise within two weeks from the date of the enumerator’s visit are considered employed.

Underemployed

Underemployed persons include all employed persons who express the desire to have additional hours of work in their present job, or an additional job, or to have a new job with longer working hours.  Visibly underemployed persons are those who work for less than 40 hours during the reference period and want additional hours of work.

Unemployed

Unemployed persons include all those who, during the reference period, are 15 years old and over as of their last birthday and reported as:

a) Without work, i.e., had no job or business during the reference period; and

b) Currently available for work, i.e., were available and willing to take up work in paid employment or self-employment during the reference period, and/or would be available and willing to take up work in paid employment or self-employment within two weeks after the interview date; and

c) Seeking work, i.e., had taken specific steps to look for a job or establish a business during the reference period, or not seeking work due to the following reasons: (1) tired or believed no work available, i.e., discouraged workers; (2) awaiting results of previous job application; (3) temporary illness or disability; (4) bad weather; and/or (5) waiting for rehire or job recall.

Persons Not in the Labor Force

Persons 15 years old and over who are neither employed nor unemployed according to the definitions mentioned.  Those not in the labor force are persons who are not looking for work because of reasons such as housekeeping, schooling and permanent disability.  Examples are housewives, students, disabled, or retired persons.

Work

Work means any economic activity a person does for pay during the past week, in cash or in kind, in any establishment, office, farm, private home, or for profit; or without pay on a family farm or enterprise.  It also includes the activities engaged in by a farm operator or member of the operator’s family, on the farm operated by another household on exchange labor arrangement.

In addition, any activity that a person does during the past week in relation to minor activities in home gardening; raising of crops, fruits, hogs, poultry and others; fishing for home consumption; and manufacturing for own use, are also considered work. However, for these activities to be considered work there must be some harvest in the case of home gardening, raising of crops, fruits and nuts, and gathering of wild fruits and vegetables; animals disposed of (sold, consumed, bartered or given away); or some catch in fishing.

Occupation and Industry

The data on occupation and industry relate to the job held by employed persons during the past week.  Occupation refers to the specific kind of work a person does, while industry refers to the nature or character of the business or enterprise or the place where a person works.  Persons employed in two or more jobs are reported in the job: (1) that is permanent, whether full time or part time; (2) where they worked more hours, if all are permanent jobs; or (3) where they derive more income, if all are permanent jobs with equal hours of work.

The 2009 Philippine Standard Industrial Classification (PSIC) codes were used starting January 2012 while the 2012 Philippine Standard Occupational Classification (PSOC) codes were used starting April 2016.

Class of Worker

Employed persons are classified according to seven categories, namely:

Worked for private household

These are employed persons working for pay in a private household, in cash or in kind. Examples are domestic helper, household cook, gardener, and family driver.

Worked for private establishment.

These are persons working for pay in a private establishment, in cash or in kind.  Examples are public transport drivers who do not own the vehicle but drive them on boundary basis, persons working in public work projects on private contractors, dock hands or stevedores, and cargo handlers in railroad stations or piers. This category includes not only persons working for a private industry but also those working for a religious group, missionary, unions and non-profit organizations, as well as Filipinos working in embassies, legation, chancelleries or consulates of foreign government in the Philippines, and Filipinos working in international organizations of sovereign states of governments like the United Nations (UN) and World Health Organization (WHO). 

Worked for government and government-controlled corporation

These are persons working for the Philippine government or a government corporation or any of its instrumentalities.  This category of worker includes the following workers: employees of national government agencies and local government units; employees of government-owned and -controlled corporations and financial institutions like the Government Service and Insurance System (GSIS), Social Security System (SSS), National Power Corporation (NPC), Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP); and civilian and military personnel of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) including chaplains, doctors, nurses, and dentists.

Self-employed

These are persons who operate their own businesses or trades and do not employ paid workers in the conduct of their economic activities.  This category includes workers who worked purely on commission basis and who may not have regular working hours.

Employers

These are persons who employ one or more paid employees in the operation of their businesses or trades. Thus, domestic helpers, family drivers and other household helpers who assist in the family-operated business, regardless of time spent in this activity, are not hired employees in the enterprise/business. A farm or business proprietor who is assisted purely by such domestic help is not also considered an employer.

Worked with pay in own family-operated farm or business

These are members of the household who receive cash, or fixed share of the produce, as payment for their services in a farm or business operated by another member living in the same household. 

Worked without pay in own family-operated farm or business

These are members of the household who assist in the operation of own family-operated farm or business, and do not receive any wage or salary for their work.  The room and board and any cash allowance given as incentives are not counted as compensation for these family workers.

Number of Hours Worked

Number of hours worked refers to the actual number of hours engaged in by a person in all the jobs or businesses that he or she held during the past week.  It includes the duration or the period when the person was occupied with his or her work, including overtime, but excluding hours paid but not worked.  The normal working hours per day is the usual or prescribed working hours of a person in his or her primary job or business which is considered a full day’s work.

 

(Sgd) HJI. RAZULDEN A. MANGELEN, MPA, MDM
(Chief Statistical Specialist)
Officer-in-Charge
RSSO-ARMM