Key Indicators on Demographic and Health Statistics of ARMM (Based on the results of NDHS 2017)

March 14, 2018Special Release Ref No.: 2018-005
7 out of 10 households in ARMM use improved source of drinking water
 
Improved sources of water protect against contamination so that the water is safer to drink; these include piped into dwelling/yard/plot, piped to neighbor, public tap/standpipe, tube well/borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, rainwater, and bottled water/refilling station.
 
Based on the results of the 2017 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2017), 95 percent of households in the Philippines use an improved source of drinking water. Among 17 regions, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) recorded the lowest proportion at 70.9 percent or 7 out of 10 households (see Figure 1). 
 
Figure 1. Proportion of households in ARMM by source of drinking water, 2017
Source: NDHS 2017, Philippine Statistics Authority
 
ARMM recorded the lowest proportion of households with access to improved sanitation facility at 35.4 percent
 
In 2017, 76 percent of Filipino households use improved sanitation facilities, which are defined as non-shared facilities that prevent people from coming into contact with human waste and thus reduce the transmission of cholera, typhoid, and other diseases. ARMM showed the lowest proportion of households with access to improved sanitation facility at 35.4 percent, which is lower than half the national estimate. 64.6 percent of households in ARMM use unimproved sanitation; this includes 11.2 percent of households with a shared toilet facility of an otherwise acceptable type, 31.6 percent with an unimproved facility, with 21.8 percent having no facilities at all.
 
Figure 2. Proportion of households in ARMM with access to improved sanitation, 2017
Source: NDHS 2017, Philippine Statistics Authority
 
1 of 2 persons in ARMM has PhilHealth insurance; majority are indigent members
 
50 percent of people in ARMM have any form of PhilHealth insurance. Majority (39 percent) of the members are indigent who obtained their membership though the National Household Targeting System for Poverty Reduction (NHTS-PR). 11 percent of the members include 6 percent formal economy, 2 percent informal economy, while the remaining 3 percent are for senior citizens, overseas Filipinos and lifetime members. 
 
8.5 percent of women in ARMM age 15-19 have begun childbearing
 
The issue of adolescent fertility is important for both health and social reasons. Children born to very young mothers are at increasing risks of sickness and death. Teenage mothers are more likely to experience adverse pregnancy outcomes and to be constrained in their ability to pursue educational opportunities than young women who delay childbearing. In ARMM, 8.5 percent of women age 15-19 have begun childbearing, which is around the national estimate at 9 percent. Out of 8.5 percent, 6.5 percent have had a live birth and 1.7 percent were pregnant at the time of the interview.
 
1 out of 4 women in ARMM age 15-19 use contraceptive methods for family planning
 
Family planning refers to a conscious effort by a couple to limit or space the number of children they have through the use of contraceptive methods. Contraceptive methods are classified as modern or traditional. Modern methods include female sterilization, male sterilization, intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD), injectables, implants, pills, condoms, standard days method (SDM), and lactational amenorrhea method (LAM). Methods such as rhythm, withdrawal, and folk methods are grouped as traditional. 
 
 
Table 1. Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by contraceptive methods currently used in ARMM, 2017
Contraceptive Method Proportion
ANY METHOD 26.3
Modern 18.7
Female sterilization 1.5
Male sterilization 0
UID 1.2
Injectables 5.6
Implants 0.6
Pill 9.7
Male condom 0.5
SDM 0
SDM LAM 0
Traditional Method 7.6
Rhythm 0.5
Withdrawal 6.3
Other 0.8
NOT CURRENTLY USING 73.7
Source: NDHS 2017, Philippine Statistics Authority
 
Table 1 shows percent distribution of currently married women by the contraceptive method they currently use. Approximately one out of four (26.3 percent) of currently married women use a method of family planning. 18.7 percent are using modern contraceptive methods while 7.6 percent are using traditional methods. Among currently married women, the most popular methods are the pills (used by 9.7 percent), withdrawal (used by 6.3 percent) and injectables (used by 5.6 percent)
 
17.8 percent of currently married woman in ARMM have unmet needs
 
The proportion of women who want to stop childbearing or who want to space their next birth is a crude measure of the extent of the need for family planning, given that not all of these women are exposed to the risk of pregnancy, and some may already be using contraception. Women who want to postpone their next birth for 2 or more years, or who want to stop childbearing altogether but are not using a contraceptive method, are said to have an unmet need for family planning. Pregnant women are considered to have an unmet need for spacing or limiting if their pregnancy was mistimed or unwanted, respectively. Similarly, amenorrheic women are categorized as having an unmet need if their last birth was mistimed or unwanted. Women who are currently using a family planning method are said to have a met need for family planning. Total demand for family planning services comprises those who fall in the met need and unmet need categories.
 
26.3 percent of currently married women in ARMM are currently using contraceptive methods, as presented in Table 1. Table 2 below shows that 17.8 percent of currently married women have an unmet need for family planning services, which implies that, 44 percent have a demand for family planning. At present, 59.6 percent of the potential demand for family planning is being met, with 42.5 percent is met by modern methods.
 
Table 2. Need and demand for family planning among currently married women in ARMM, 2017
Indicators Percentage
Unmet need for family planning 17.8
Met need for family planning  
All methods 26.3
Modern methods 18.7
Total demand for family planning 44.0
Percentage of demand  
All methods 59.6
Modern methods 42.5
Source: NDHS 2017, Philippine Statistics Authority
 
In ARMM, only 33.6 percent of women who have given births were delivered by a health provider, lesser than half the national estimate
 
Proper care during pregnancy and delivery is important for the health of both the mother and the baby. In the NDHS 2017, women who have given birth in the 5 years preceding the survey were asked a number of questions about maternal care. Mothers were asked whether they had obtained antenatal care during the pregnancy for their most recent live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey and whether they had received tetanus toxoid injections while pregnant. For each live birth over the same period, mothers were also asked what type of assistance they received at the time of delivery and whether the birth was delivered by cesarean section. Finally, women who had a live birth in the 2 years before the survey were asked if they received a postnatal check during the first 2 days after birth. Table 3 below summarizes information on the coverage of these maternal health services.
 
Antenatal care (ANC) from a skilled provider is important to monitor pregnancy and reduce morbidity and mortality risks for the mother and child during pregnancy, at delivery, and during the postnatal period (42 days after delivery). Table 3 shows that 68.6 percent of women who gave birth in the 5 years preceding the survey in ARMM received antenatal care from a skilled provider at least once for their last birth. 47.8 percent of women had four or more ANC visits.
 
Table 3. Maternal care indicators among women age 15-49 in ARMM, 2017
Indicators Percentage
Women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey
Percentage receiving antenatal care from a skilled provider1 68.6
Percentage with 4+ ANC visits 47.8
Percentage whose most recent live birth was protected against neonatal tetanus2 65.7
Number of women 238
Live births in the 5 years preceding the survey
Percentage delivered by a skilled provider1 33.6
Percentage delivered in a health facility 28.4
Percentage delivery by cesarean section 3.6
Number of births 361
Women who had a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey
Percentage of women with a postnatal check during the first 2 days after birth3 63.6
Number of women 129
Source: NDHS 2017, Philippine Statistics Authority
1 - Skilled provider includes doctor, nurse, and midwife.
2 - Includes mothers with two injections during the pregnancy of her most recent live birth, or two or more injections (the last within 3 years of the most recent live birth), or three or more injections (the last within 5 years of the most recent live birth), or four or more injections (the last within 10 years of the most recent live birth), or five or more injections at any time prior to the last live birth
3 - Includes women who received a check from a doctor, nurse, midwife, traditional birth attendant/hilot, or barangay health worker
 
Tetanus toxoid injections are given during pregnancy to prevent neonatal tetanus, a major cause of early infant death in many developing countries, often due to failure to observe hygienic procedures during delivery. The result shows that 65.7 percent of women in ARMM with a birth in the 5 years before the survey received sufficient doses of tetanus toxoid to protect their last birth against neonatal tetanus. 
 
Furthermore, among all regions in the country, ARMM recorded the lowest percentage of births delivered by a skilled provider at 33.6 percent, lesser than half the national estimate. 78 percent were delivered in a health facility and 13 percent were delivered by cesarean section.
 
A large proportion of maternal and neonatal deaths occur during the first 48 hours after delivery. Safe motherhood programs recommend that all women receive a check of their health during the first 2 days after birth. In ARMM, the percentage of women with a postnatal check during the first 2 days after birth was recorded at 63.6 percent.
 
4 out of 10 children in ARMM have not received any vaccinations
 
Universal immunization of children against common vaccine-preventable diseases is crucial to reducing infant and child mortality. The NDHS 2017 collected information on the coverage of all of these vaccines among children born in the 3 years preceding the survey. The information obtained in the survey on differences in vaccination coverage among subgroups of children is useful for program planning and targeting resources towards areas most in need. Table 4 shows that only 18 percent of children in ARMM age 12-23 months received all basic vaccinations and 8.9 percent received all age-appropriate vaccinations. Approximately 4 out of 10 children (43.7 percent) age 12-23 months have not received any vaccinations at all. Among children age 24-35 months, only 9.1 percent have received all age-appropriate vaccinations.
 
Table 4. Percentage of children in ARMM age 12-23 and 24-35 months who received specific vaccines
Vaccination Percentage
Children 12-23 months
BCG 54.7
HepB (birth dose) 33.0
DPT 40.0
34.2
28.9
HepB 40.5
36.2
32.9
Hib 40.0
34.2
28.9
Polio2 44.1
41.2
33.3
Measles/MMR 33.6
All basic vaccinations 18.0
All age appropriate vaccinations 8.9
No vaccinations 43.7
Number of Children 68
Children 24-35 months
Measles/MMR 11.2
All age appropriate vaccinations 9.1
Number of children 69
Source: NDHS 2017, Philippine Statistics Authority
 
Only few women in ARMM know that consistent use of condoms can prevent HIV
 
37.5 percent of women age 15-49 in the region know that consistent use of condoms is a means of preventing the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This awareness, however, is very low compared to the national estimate of 66.2 percent. 46 percent of women believe that limiting sexual intercourse to one faithful, uninfected partner can reduce the chance of contracting HIV. 32.8 percent know that both using condoms and limiting sexual intercourse to one uninfected partner are means of preventing HIV.
 
ARMM has the lowest incidence of violence against women in the country
 
Across all regions, ARMM recorded the lowest percentage of all types of violence against ever-married women age 15-49 committed by their husband/partner. 5.3 percent experienced emotional violence, 2.3 percent physical violence and only 1 percent on sexual violence (see Table 5 below). 
 
Table 5. Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have ever experienced emotional, physical or sexual violence committed by their husband/partner, 2017
Region Emotional
violence
Physical
violence
Sexual
violence
Physical
and
sexual
Physical
and sexual
and
emotional
Physical
or sexual
Physical
or sexual
or
emotional
Number
of ever
married
women
National Capital Region 10.0 9.0 1.6 1.1 0.7 9.5 15.6 1,727
Cordillera Admin. Region 12.3 8.7 3.1 2.1 1.5 9.6 16.0 165
I - Ilocos Region 24.7 19.0 6.3 5.1 3.6 20.2 33.1 555
II - Cagayan Valley 16.6 13.4 5.6 4.6 3.1 14.4 20.6 415
III - Central Luzon 11.9 8.5 3.7 2.9 2.3 9.3 15.4 1,175
IVA - CALABARZON 15.4 12.5 3.6 2.9 1.9 13.1 22.5 1,964
IVB - MIMAROPA 20.9 13.9 5.2 3.7 2.3 15.4 27.2 316
V - Bicol 33.0 24.2 11.9 8.7 6.9 27.4 43.4 707
VI - Western Visayas 25.1 14.8 5.5 4.4 3.5 15.9 30.6 689
VII - Central Visayas 33.7 14.5 6.0 4.2 4.1 16.3 38.0 675
VIII - Eastern Visayas 35.0 22.6 8.9 6.8 5.0 24.7 43.2 476
IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 38.7 15.3 9.2 5.3 4.5 19.3 43.4 377
X - Northern Mindanao 18.2 12.0 4.2 3.6 2.6 12.6 22.6 488
XI - Davao 19.6 15.7 4.0 3.6 2.9 16.0 26.9 617
XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 23.6 11.0 7.1 3.3 2.2 14.8 29.8 543
XIII - Caraga 44.7 22.6 1.9 9.5 7.5 28.0 51.8 323
ARMM 5.3 2.9 1.0 0.6 0.5 3.3 6.7 346
Source: NDHS 2017, Philippine Statistics Authority
 
 
ABUBAKAR S. ASAAD, Ph.D. (Statistics)
Regional Director